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Full text of "A long felt want supplied. The new Hotel Albert, New Berne, North Carolina .."

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Neta7 BEriiE, Nortli Carnlina, 










is a uew departure iu the ancient city of New Berne; it is 
the first time in its history that an attempt has been made 
to fill the requirements of the traveling public, in the erec- 
tion of a -good Hotel building; in this attempt the i^roprietor 
has been eminently successful, and has now supplied a long 
felt want. 

Hotel Albert is located in the heart of the business 
portion, of the city; it is constructed of brick, has 60 feet 
front and is 165 feet deep. It is three stories in height, the 
front of the building as well as the inside is finished in an 
elaborate and beautiful manner. The Hotel is well supplied 
with water-closets and bath-rooms. There are gas fixtures 
all through the house, and water is carried into every room 
throughout the building. The water used in the Hotel, 
for drinking purposes, comes from an artesian well, an 
analysis of tije State Chemist shows it to be very good. 

The Hotel is also furnished with an unlimited supply of 
rain water. From an observatory on the top of the building, 
there is an extensive and magnificent view of the broad 
Neuse river and the picturesque Trent, and of the extensive 
forests around New Bern^, studded with farms. Hotel 
Albert is constructed expressly for the accommodation of 
tourists with their families, also for infirm persons who are 
seeking for renewed vigor and health in a climate exempt 
from the icy blasts of the North, and the torrid heats of the 
Gulf States. 

There are speaking tubes from each floor connecting 
with the office. 

Electric bells in every room. 

liadiators in every room. 

There is a first-class Barber Saloon in the basement. 

A fine Billiard room, also a baggage room. 

An Omnibus line runs in connection with the Norfolk 
steamers and the Atlantic and North Carolina Kailroad. 

There are first-class Livery Stables near the Hotel from 
which good teams can be obtained to visit the places of 
interest around New Berne. 


The table will be well supplied lioni the home market, 
also from the markets abroad, and will be ftrst-class. Every 
attention will be paid to seeure the comfort and happiness 
of the guests. 

The average size of the bed rooms in Hotel Albert is 15 
by 18 feet, with large windows, and over each door there is a 
patent transom glass, or light with a patent transom lifter. 
The whole building is so constructed that there is a free 
circulation of air throughout. 

Each room has water carried into it, and the floors are 
covered either with Brussels or ingrain carpeting of elegant 
designs. There are woven spring mattresses on each bed. 
The furniture is of cherry, rich and elaborate. 

The Special Parlor is carpeted with Brussels. The 
furniture is of black walnut, covered with crimson plush. 
There is also an elegant upright piano, rose wood, of rich 
full tone. 

The spacious hall-ways on second and third floors are 20 
feet wide, lighted from the roof and are carpeted in Brussels. 

The dining room is spacious, well ventilated with win- 
dows on each side, with inside blinds j the ceiling is lofty 
and finished in native wood, and laid oft' in a beautiful de- 
sign; the walls are of French gray with gilt mouldings. In 
the rear of this beautiful and cosey dining room is the 
carving room, and in the rear of this is the kitchen depart- 
ment so constructed that no odor arising from cooking can 
be discerned in the dining room. 

The inside walls of Hotel Albert are, with the exception 
of the dining room, white, in luird finish, and are in beautiful 
contrast with the rich bright cherry color of the wood work, 
and also with the furniture of same wood. In a word Hotel 
Albert is the neatest, most comfortable and the cosiest Hotel 
in tht' State of North Carolina. Too much credit cannot be 
awarded to the enterprising and energetic proprietors, 
Messrs. M. Patterson & Son, for the erection of this Hotel; 
they deserve success. 


Two dollars, two and a half aud tliree dollars per day, 
according to location. ' 


Tliore are two ways, botli desirable, by wbicli persons 
can travel comfortably to New Berne; one route is from 
Goldsboro, Nortb Carolina, by way of the Atlantic and North 
Carolina Eailroad; another is, by way of Norfolk, Virginia, 
from thence to New Berne by the Old Dominion line of 
steamers. They will pass through the Albemarle aud Chesa- 
peake canal, through Pamlico sound and up the Neuse to 
New Berne. From New Berne thej^ can visit the different 
places on the Neuse aud Trent rivers by steam, and the sea 
coast bv tiie Atlantic and North Carolina Eailroad. 




It lias been trutlitiilly said, that there is no space ol 
territory in any of the original thirteen States of the Ameri- 
can Union so little known, so little visited and seen by other 
than its residents, and of which the characters have been so 
little noticed or appreciated as Eastern North Carolina; and 
yet, there is no part of the entire Atlantic Sea Board that 
ofters as many indncements to emigrants of means; Avith all 
of her wealth of forests, ricli in valnable timber; her immense 
fisheries, her every vaiiety of soil— some of it the richest on 
eartli— capable of producing- all the great staples; her im- 
mense oyster-beds, as yet comparatively untouched; her 
unrivaled climate exempt alike from the chilling blasts of the 
North, and the torrid heats of the Gulf States; her extem^ive 
navigable rivers, bayous, bays and creeks, the ever swelling 
tide of emigration has never crossed her bojders. This tide 
has turned North and West until it crossed the continent, 
and i)eopled those vast solitudes with a race of dauntless 
energy and great aspiration; and new States were formed, 
cities rose on every hand, school houses multiplied, steam- 
boats plowed their way upon evei-y river, and the continent 
was spanned with an iron track, and the shrill whistle of the 
locomotive was heard bearing on its rumbling train the pro- 
ductions of tar oft' China and Japan. In the geographical 
centre of this magnificent region the city of New Berne is 
beautifully situated at the junction of N^euse and Trent 
rivers, the Neuse forming its eastern and northern, and the 
Trent its southern boundary— both wide and beautiful 
streams. The soil upon which it is built is light and sandy 
and gently slopes to the rivers, consequently the drainage is 
perfect. It is w^ell laid out; has twenty miles of streets, and 
they are made to conform to tlie course of both rivers, their 
general direction being north and south and east and west, 
or very nearly so. They are well shaded with maple, ash 
and huge spreading elm trees, with their branches almost 
interlacing, forming an arched canopy of verdure over the 
streets, hence the sobriquet of Elm City. 


The bouses are generally of wood, plain, old-l'asliioned 
square mansions, a few being in tbe cottage style. Many of 
tbem are embowered in evergreen creepers, and surrounded 
with elegant Hower yards; during the greater part of tbe 
year tbe city is a rose bed of be-auty. Sucb is tbe gentle 
miblness of tbe climate, tbat exotic plants, botb from tbe 
extreme nortb and tbe extreuie soutb, become aclimated, and 
roses, of wbicb tliPie are a great variety, bloom in tbe open 
air until tbe middle of December. 

Tbere are some line brick dwellings, and also quite a 
number of elegant brick stores. It is a strangely picturesque 
place, full of strong contrasts. Tbe plain, quiet, easy-going- 
ways of tbe old re(iime are in striking contrast witb tbe rusb, 
dasb and roar and tbe unceasing, energetic i)usb of tbe new 
era tbat bas dawned upon tbe people. Several of tbe streets 
are sbelled, making elegant drives. 

Owing to tbe situation of Xew Berne at tbe junction of 
two wide rivers, and only 28 statute miles from tbe ocean, tbe 
Avinters are very mild; tbe air is crisp and bra(dng, tbe 
average beat is 40 degrees in winter. Spring opens in P'eb- 
ruary, and in Marcb tbe flower yards put on tbeir mantle of 
beauty, and tbe trees" are in full verdure. During tbe sum- 
mer montbs tbe beat is not as oi)pressive as it is in tbe 
Nortbern States, and tbe extreme bot weatber lasts but a 
sbort time. 

Sun strokes are of very rare occurrence, and are almost 
unknown. Tbe average beat in tbe summer montbs is 75 
degrees. Tbe proximity to tbe ocean and tbe country being 
penetrated in every direction by broad sounds and water 
courses, modifies tbe beat. 

Tbe prevailing winds during tbe summer montbs are 
from tbe soutb-west and soutb-east, and tbey are of daily 
regularity. A perfectly calm summer nigbt is of rare occur- 
rence in tbe city of New Berne and is considered pbenome- 
nal. Tbere are but fCAv still calm days in tbe course of a 
year, tbe number being mucb less tban immediately on tbe 
sea coast. The winter may be termed the only season of 
084! ms. 


New Berne is a fine resort for those afflicted with or 
disposed to pnhnonary diseases. Dnrin^? the months of Oc. 
tober, November, and part of December, the climate is of 
such delicious softness that mere existence becomes a pleas- 
ure: the atmosphere is singularly bri^'ht and clear, and such 
is its transparency, that objects at a great distance seem 
near. Out door labor during' the entire year is very seldom 
interrupted either by excessive heat or excessive cold; there 
are more woiking days in the course of a year than in the 
more Northern States. 

A g-reat deal of ignorance exists as regards the health- 
fulness of Eastern North Carolina; the uninformed think it 
the land of pestilence; this ignorance is now being rapidly 
dispelled, but was at one time so widely spread that a person 
living in the interior of the State, who contemplated a 
journey east, invariably made his will before he started and 
solicited the prayers of the iaithful for his safe return to his 
mountain home. If his stay was prolonged east he generally 
improved in his physique before he turned his steps home- 
ward. We judge a tree by its fruits, and we form our opinion 
of the healthfulness of a city from the general appearance of 
its inhabitants, their longevity and the death rate; upon this 
basis, tlie city of New Berne can make as good a showing as 
any city in the United States. The diseases so prevalent in 
the Northern States and in the hilly and mountain regions, 
such as typhoid fever, consumption, pneumonia, diphtheria 
and scarlet fever have no abiding place in New Berne. It is 
an indisputable fact, that the only fevers prevalent here are 
of a mild type and yield quickly to medical treatment. 

It is generally conceded by medical men of intelligence, 
that pine regions, or the regions in which the turpentine 
pines are the principal forest growth, are favorable to health 
and longevity. The balsamic eli'ect of these trees is soothing 
to weak and delicate constitutions. The good effects of the 
winter climate of New Berne on persons from abroad, having- 
weak lungs, is noticeable, and a prolonged stay here is gen- 
erally followed by a permanent cure. The reasons are simply 
these : New Berne stands upon ground that was once a pine 


forest; she is surrouuded in every directiou to the distance 
of 30 or more miles by forests, the growth of which is mostly 
the turpentine pine; two sides of the city are washed by 
broad running rivers. She has daily the sea breeze; and the 
dranage is perfect; in a word it may be asserted without fear 
of successful contradiction, that there is no part of the 
United States where pulmonary patients stand a better 
chance of being cured,— we will go further and say,— as good 
a chance of being cured as in New Berne. It is a sanatarium. 
As evidence of the truthfulness of this statement, New 
Berne w^ith its suburbs contains 90U0 people, and the county 
of which she is the chief town has a population of twenty 
thousand, and yet there are but eight practicing physicians. 
These assertions are made in the full sincerity of belief that 
they are true. 

Any one can, with reasonable prudence, enjoy as good 
health in any portion of Eastern North Carolina, to say 
nothing of New Berne, as tlkey can anywhere in the Western 
or Northern part of the United States. 

There are some very good schools in New Berne in which 
the high branches of education are taught, aud the charges 
for tuition are low. 

The people of New Berne are justly proud of their two 
steam lire engine companies. The supply of water is un- 
limited from twenty-six unexhaustible bored wells, to say 
nothing of the two rivers. 

The society of the city is excellent. 

The new court house is an elegant building, the finest 
one of the kind in the State. 

The new Academy building is also a fine structure and 
will accommodate 600 pupils. 

There is one National bank and one private banking 
house, one cotton and grain exchange, one theatre, one daily 
and three weekly papers^ two book and job printing offices. 

The latitude is 35° 6^ 15^^: longitude 77° '1' 30^^ west. 



Tliis large and beautiful resting place for tlie dead, was 
presented to the city of New Berne by Obrist Cburcb, the 
first Colonial Cburcb iu New Berne. It is partly surrounded 
by a wall built of conglomerate sbell rock. Tbe gateway is 
an arcbed entrance of stone, tbat daily and nigbtly drips 
drops of water as tbougb it was weeping for tbe departed 
ones tbat lie witbin tbe enclosure. 

Tbere is not a more interesting spot in New Berne, and 
none so dear to tbe people. Upon entering, tbe ground rises 
gently, and tben falls gracefully away into soft slopes of 

On your rigbt at tbe entrance, is tbe tomb of tbe dis- 
tinguisbed Jobn Stanly, wbo was suddenly stricken witb 
paralysis in tlie bour of bis triumpb in debate. Wbile we 
look upon bis bonored tomb, we recall ''bis flowing courtesy 
to all men," bis grand and brilliant career in political life, 
'•bis rare affability and temper in debate tbat awakened ad- 
miration among bis opponents." Near bim is tbe resting 
place of tbe mucb loved and bigbly gifted H. T. Guion. On 
your left is tbe tomb of Major Jobn Daves, one of tbe gallant 
leaders of tbe band of beroes tbat stormed Stoney Point in 
tbe days tbat tried men's souls. Fartber on are tbe tombs 
of tbe Spaigbts, tbe Wasbingtons, tbe Sbepards and Bryan, 
all distinguisbed in law and in tbe service of the State. Tbe 
courtly, dignified, learned and uprigbt Manly sleeps in a 
vault. Fartber on is tbe sarcophagus of tbe great Gaston, 
tbe cotemporary of Clay, Webster, Calboun and Marshall, 
whose name lives in history and in song and story. In 
front of yon, on a swelling knoll, is the monument to tbe 
Confederate dead, surmounted by a life-size marble statue of 
a soldier; and underneath repose the remains of men who 
fell in tbe "Lost Cause," and now await tbe last bugle call. 

" On Fame's eternal camping ground, 
Their silent tents are spread; 
And Glory guards with solemn round 
The bivouac of the dead." 

On vour rigbt is tbe monument of Jobn Daves Hughes who 


lost liis life in the great storm at Beaufort, North Carolina, 
August 18th, 1879, while saving helpless women and children 
from a watery grave. "Greater love hath no man than this; 
that a man lay down his life for his friends." In that howl- 
ing tempest and vortex of raging seas, he was swept to 
destruction. The sea gave up its dead, the gallant Christian 
youth sleeps with his forefathers, and on the desolate sand 
waste the murmuring waves softly chant his requiem. 
Earthed on is the tomb of the talented and much loved E. S. 
Donuell, whom the people of North Carolina delighted to 
honor. In this sacred spot is the resting place of New 
Berne's Christian poetess, Mrs. Susan J. Hancock, who sung 
her song in sweet and lofty strains; also the graves of the 
wonderfully gifted and accomplished poetess and writer, Mrs. 
Mary Bayard Clarke and that of her husband, the learned 
and gallant Col. William J. Clarke. On all sides are tall 
graceful monuments shining in whiteness and i)urity. Ven- 
erable cedars, the trembling aspen, the silver maple, the 
funereal cypress, tbe broad spreading elm, and 

"The dew dropping willows, 
Like fond weeping mourners, 
Bend over the gravies." 

Beneath you and around you are flowers of a thousand 
varying hues. At night the grand old grove is vocal with 
the notes of the mocking bird, chanting its evening song of 

The people of New Berne love this City of the Dead; in 
it repose her dead for the past century; it tells them of their 
great statesmen and their heroic soldiers 

" Who sleep their last sleep 
And have fought their last battle," 

and it tells them of loved ones now aone. 

NEW BERNE, N. C. 11 



On tlie outskirts of the city is the National Cemetery, 
nearly eight acres in extent, in which repose the remains of 
three thousand two hundred and seventy-four soldiers of the 
Federal Government. Tlie shape of the Cemetery is that of 
an oblong' square; the land rises gradually from the entrance 
gate, giving it somewhat the appearance of a vast amphi- 
theatre. The grounds are surrounded by a brick wall, 
wrought in panels; near the entrance, is a beautiful cottage 
built of shell rock, embowered in trailing ivy, running roses 
and the sweet scented jasmine; and around it are parterres 
of choice exotics. Inside of the walls of the cemetery on 
three sides, are hedges of the maguiticent evergreen euony- 
mus, kept, as are the entire grounds, in perfect order. The 
cemetery is laid out in oblong squares, so as to coiiform in 
shape with the outer wall; the avenues run at right angles, 
and are planted with many varieties of trees, forming arched 
canopies of green verdure. 

On the right hand at the entrance, there is a magnificent 
grove of maple trees, one hundred and ten in number, planted 
so as to form a cross, called the "Sylvan Shade;" the design 
is unique. 

The country outside the limits of the enclosure has a 
peculiar beauty of its own; it is gently undulating; rising 
into small hills and then gracefully falling away into level 
plains, dotted here and there over the land-scape, with groves 
of green. 

In the middle of the grounds of this beautiful cemetery 
is a tall flag-staff with the flag of the United States flying in 
graceful folds. 

" Forever float that Standard Sheet." 

On the left of the flag-staft' is a monument of granite 
erected to the memory of liobert F. Lehman, a civilian, who 
enacted a prominent and useful part in the history of the 
State. Near him is a monument to the memory of David 


Heafcou, who was a friend to the State of his adoption. 
There is also another monument to the memory of a gallant 

Around these monuments sleep the remains of over three 
thousand soldiers, whose names, nativity and regiment, are 
designated on marble head-boards. The graves of the un- 
known dead are designated by square blocks of marble. 

Interspersed throughout the grounds are over one hun- 
dred varieties of evergreen shrubbery, selected with great 
care, and planted with skill and taste. At short distances 
apart on the main avenue, are coi)ies of appropriate verses, 
written in large characters on painted stands. We select 
the following lines as exceedingly neat and apx^ropriate: 

'• The neighing troops, the flashing blade, 
The bugle's stii-ving blast, 
The charge, — the dreadful cannonade, 
The dm nnd shout are past." 

And they are i^ast, w^e trust forever. .No more will this 
mighty continent rock to and fro with the tram}) of contend- 
ing, hosts. "The old Ship of State" is now sailing on in 
smooth seas of i)ea(;e, plenty and prosperity, and the starry 
Hag waves over a united country. 

" Now give our voices to the breeze— our banner to the sky; 
^ Let stars to kindred stars bear up our orisons on high, 

God save our sacred Union ; the gift our fathers gave. 
For which they fought and fell in many a hero grave." 

NEW BERNE, N. C. 13 


The visitor to Kastoru North Cai-oliua, will not S(u; what is f>:onerally termed 
line scenery ; but tlu^-e is a something- in the landscape, that never fails to attract 
"the notice and exciter the admiration of the stranger. There are no snow-capped 
mountains, no billowy i-olling country, whose bill-tops are covered with um- 
bi-ageous oaks, and whose sloping sides are clotlied in green. There are no 
laughing rivulets, no lea,ping cascades, no bubbling fountains, no sparkling 
brooks, no fairy dells; but there are wide, grand rolling rivers, whose distant 
shores sink below the liorizon. There itre deep creeks and bayous whose "glassy 
surface is scarcely disturbed by a ruder breath than tlie zephyrs of Spring," 
whose banks are fringed Avith waving cane and giant grasses, and dotted with 
magnificent green and scarlet hollies, with huge poplars, graceful maples, and 
the funereal cypress, and are festooned from tree-top to tree-top with the fragrant 
yellow jasmine, the luxurant creeping bamboo, or the wild muscadine grape, 
forming a deep and dense shade impervious to the rays of a summer sun. 

I'liere are wide and grassy savannas dotted with groves of pine and carpeted 
with an endless variety of gorgeously brilliant flowers, whose beauty is enhanced 
1)y the transparent purity of the air, and the genial warmtli of the sun. There 
are forests of giant oaks and mammoth pines draped in moss, tall, graceful juni- 
pers and loi-dly cedars that were venerable patriarchs of the forest when the tide 
of emigration first broke u])on our shores. There is something awe-inspiring in 
the solemn stillness of these pathless solitudes; no sound is heard save the sigh- 
ing of the wind in the overshadowing canopj'- of green, or the lonely booming 
echo of decayed falling limits. There are placid lakes whose watei's are of crys- 
talline purity, and whose shores are of emerald hue. There are grand inland 
seas, whose rolling waves are sometimes lashed into fury by the howling 
tempest, and upon whose outer bounds the surge of Old Ocean rolls its wild, pro- 
found, eternal l)ass. 


The greater part of Eastern Korth Carolina being in primeval forest, abounds 
in game of the larger class. Deer, foxes, raccoons and opossum are plentiful. 
Wild cats and bears are rather too numerous, in some parts, for the comfort of 
thetarmers; besides, there is a "considerable sprinkling" of alligators. The 
sooner the three last mentioned are removed from the face of the country, the 
better it will be for those who live in the chiared swamp lands or on lands 
bordered by marshy creeks. 

The privilege of hunting on nine-tenths of the land can be had, by merely 
requesting pei'mission of the owners; generally, the owners will gladly partici- 
pate in the sport. The usual weapon in use here is the double-barrel breech- 
loader wuth fixed ammunition. Kifies are seldom used. There are great quan- 
tities of feathered game. The rivers, sounds and creeks abound in various kinds 
of water fowl. It may he salely asserted, and without fear of successful contra- 
diction, that there is no State lying on the Atlantic seaboard, possibly with the 
exception of Florida, that abounds so plentifully with game of so many varieties, 
as Eastern North Carolina, and none in which the facilitiesof getting through the 
countrj- with light draft boats and all other appurtenances required by hunting 
pai-ties, are as great, and none in which the expenses are as light. The hunter 
so far from being deemed a source of revenue as he is in Florida, is looked upon 
more in the light of a visitor, and treated accordingly. Near Ncnv Berne, on the 
line of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroail, is the best hunting ground in 
the State. 



The waters of Eastern North Carolina abound in fish, and probably there are 
a greater variety than in any other part of the world, and there is no pursuit 
followed more ardently by the people, both for pleasure and profit. The creeks 
abound in black bass and speckled trout. In the rivers, at certain seasons, every 
variety of salt water fish are caught. So extensively are tish caught in the waters 
of the Neuse and Trent rivers, that the business gives eniplojanent to a great 
number of persons, and the shipping of them to the interior of the State the year 
round, packed in ice during the summer months, is followed to a great extent. 
There are no laws in North Carolina prohibiting fishing with hook and line, the 
favorite mode in vogue with sportsmen. Tlie statutory enactments apply to fish- 
ing with nets and seines. 


No part of the Atlantic Seaboard offers finer cruising grounds for yachts of 
light draught, than the waters of Eastern North Carolina. Neuse river, ten miles 
wide at its mouth, with a course of eighty miles to go and return. The broad 
Pamlico sound, the placid Pamlico river, Core sound and Beaufort harbor, with 
towns and watering places situated upon them all, make Eastern North Carolina 
a delightful place of resort for yachtmen. They may come here and rest assured 
that they will get all the wind and rough seas they may care to encounter. At 
the mouth of Neuse river, with the wind blowing from the noith-east, the seas run 
sufficiently high to put a good size yacht's bowsprit and cat-heads out of sight. 
The great advantage here attendant upon yachting is the absence of calm 
weather; there being but few days in the year, that there is not a good sailing- 


This fort is immediately on Neuse river, about 18 miles from New Berne by 
water, and about same distance by land. It is built on a bank nearly twenty feet 
above the river. Its location shows that the Tuscarora Indians had some con- 
siderable knowledge of the art of fortification. It was assailalile only on two 
sides; the front was pi-otected by the river, and one side was protected by a 
watercourse. On the top of the embankment was erected a palisade of stakes 
driven in the ground. Only two sides of the fort now remain, the rest having 
disappeared under cultivation. The South Carolina troops who assailed and 
captured it, were under the command of Col. John Barnwell who, from his gal- 
lantry in this affair, won the name of "Tuscarora John," and the fort was subst- 
qiiently called Fort Barnwell. As he is an imposing figure in the early annals of 
the settlement of North Carolina, some account of the distinguished family from 
which he sprung, might interest tlie reader. 

The family of Barnwell or Barneveld is ol Norman exfraction. The ancestor 
of the family came into England with William of Normandy and was with liim 
when victory perched upon his baimer on tlie fatal field of Hastings. The family 

NEW BERNE, N. C. 15 

won honors, laiuls and distinction. Another of the family, Sir Michael de Barne- 
Avcll, made Ireland his home and fonnded the baronetcies of Kinf?sland and 
Ti-imblestone. He was a companion-in-arms with Richard de Clare, Earl of 
StriK"'. known as Stron^bow. They were faithful to the Honse ot Stuart, fought 
in its defence and lost lands, wealth and power. Another of the family, John 
Barnwell or Barnewell, is distinguished in the history of the United Netherlands 
during her terrible struggle with Spain, whose power then overshadowed the 
earth. During the dark days of the Revolutionary war the Barnwells were prom- 
inent in war and in council. When the British threatened, if the Americans re- 
taliated for the base and cruel murder of Colonel Hayne, they would sacrifice the 
American prisoners then in their possession; among these prisoners were three 
Barnwells, descendants of "Tuscann-a John." The prisoners unanimously signed 
a paper requesting the Continental authorities to take no thouglit of them, but to 
act as they thought best for the welfare of their country. 

The Barnwells have been distinguished not only on the battle field but also as 
jurists, and statesmen and Christian Divines, and their ardent, devoted conse- 
craticwi of their all "to the service of Christ shed a radiance around the old Nor- 
man name purer and holier than the fame of the proudest conqueror that earth 
can boast." 



NEW BERNE, N. C. 17 


The lirst periiiaiient settlement on the peninsular 
bounded by the waters of the Neuse and Trent rivers, now 
known as New Berne, was made in the year 1710, by a body 
ol German and Swiss emigrants; the tormer were from 
Heidelberg, on the Neckar, in the Grand Duchy of Baden; 
they had been made the victims of religious persecution be- 
cause they could not change their religion with every change 
of their rulers— their sin being Protestantism. While they 
sutfered religious persecution on the one hand, on the other 
the French arjny considered them as German enemies, and 
desolated and harried the country. Their condition excited 
the pity and sorrow of the Queen of England, and she, by 
proclamation, invited them to England and offered them 
protection in her dominions. They accepted the offered pro- 
tection and about twelve thousan(l took refuge iu England. 

At this time it so happened that a Swiss Nobleman, 
Christopher de Graffenned, Irom the canton of Berne was in 
Eugland with a number of his countrymen tliat were anxious 
to emigrate. There was also another Swiss gentleman iu 
London, Lewis Michel, who had been an officer in the Swiss 
army and knew America well, having been an agent for the 
Swiss goveinment to ffnd a large tract of laud either in 
Pennsylvania, Virginia or Carolina, suitable for a colony. 

De Graffenried and Lewis Michel bought from the 
Lords Proprietors ten thousand acres of land to be laid off' m 
one body on or between the Cape Fear and Neuse rivers or 
any of their branches. They paid one pound sterling for 
each 100 acres, and bound themselves to a quit rent of a six 
pence sterling yearly for every hundred acres; and the Sur- 
veyor General of the colony was ordered to lay off' for them 
in addition 100,000 acres to be reserved for tliem for twelve 

De Graffenried and Michel agreed to transport six hun- 
dred and tifty Germans and Swiss and give each family 250 
acres of laud live years for nothing^ and after live years at a 
rent of two pence per acre; and still further agreed to furn- 
ish them gratis with tools for agriculture and building, and 
to supply them also with cattle, hogs and sheep for which 
they should not pay until seven years after receiving them; 
and also to supply them with necessary food for themselves 
and families to be [>aid for two years after their arrival. 
The Lords Proprietors were anxious for the Germans to 


emigrate as tliey wanted occupants for their laud. The 
Queen was anxious, as emigTation would increase tlie 
strength of her colonies; and De Gratieuried and Michel 
were also anxious, as they expected to make money out of 
it; consequently they readily acceded to the proposition 
made by the Comniissioners appointed by the Queen, to 
solicit subscriptions from the benevolent, to aid the poverty 
stricken exiles, and to make their pathway pleasant to their 
future home in the wilds of North Carolina. 

The Commissioners of the Queen agreed to furnish each 
emigrant, old and young, twenty shillings sterling in clothes 
and money, and to pay De Graffenried and Michel live 
pounds and ten shillings sterling a head for transportation. 

In December, 1710, these emigrants landed at the con- 
fluence of Neuse and Trent rivers, at or near what is now 
known as Union Point, and New Berne was begun. Little 
did they expect the dire and dreadful calamity that aw aited 
them. In 1711 the Indians became restive at the encroach- 
ment of the whites upon their lauds; many of them had been 
employed by the whites as servants, and perfect confidence 
was reposed in their iidelity. They were permitted to have 
free ingress or egress to or from their dwellings, and^upon the 
Aviiole their physical condition was much improved. Not- 
withstanding tliis kind treatment, a general massacre was 
planned among them for the extermination of the white 
settlers on the Koanoke, Pamlico and Neuse rivers. The 
conspiracy extended among tlie Tuscaroras on the lioanoke, 
the Pamlicoes on river of same name, the Cotechneys who 
lived in what is now known as Greene county, the Cores on 
the Neuse and its lower Avaters, the Mattamuskeefcs and 
Matchapungoes,— the former in what is now known as Hyde 
county, and the latter on the Pungo river in that part of the 
State known now as Beaufort county. 

The day of slaughter was appointed; the savages to the 
number of sixteen hundred, their whole available strength, 
divided themselves into small but overi)Owering parties and 
commenced their work of death. The suri)rise was as great 
as it was terrible; the whites were living, as they thought, in 
perfect security and did not dream of any dissatisfaction 
among the Indians, so securely had they kept secret their 
terrible purposes. 

The time appointed by the Indians for simultaneous ac- 
tion, was the day preceding the new moon, which would 
occur ou the 22d of September, 1711. When the appointed 
day for slaughter came, twelve hundred Tuscaroras Irom the 
Eoanoke, seperated into small parties, set out on their mis- 
sion of death. There had been no outward manifestation of 

NEW BEENE, N. C. 19 

hostility among the ludiansj individual Indians were sent 
among- the whites to reconnoitre, and as night approached, 
numbers ai)poared upon pretence of seeking provisions, but 
not in such quantities as to cause suspicion or alarm. At 
sunrise, which was the preconcerted time lor simultaneous 
butchery, those Indians in the employ of tlie whites, — and 
there was scarcely a house in the settlement without them — 
gave a signal to which a response was given in the terrible 
war-whoop of the savages, and the dreadful work began. 
The carnage was terrible; the slaughter was indiscriminate; 
gray haired age, young men, feeble women and innocent 
children all tared alike; but few escaped. One hundred and 
thirty were butchereil on the lioanoke. The Swiss and 
Germans around New Berne, to the number of sixty, were 
murdered. The Hugenot settlements on the Pamlico suffered 
terribly, and the Indians only desisted from their bloody 
work from drunkenness and fatigue. 

The success of this massacre aroused the Indians 
throughout Virginia and even as far north as the colony of 
NcAv York. They were like hungry tigers thirsting for blood, 
and it required all the address and vigorous exertions of 
Gov. Si)otswood of the Virginia colony and the Governor of 
South Carolina to quell the war-spirit iimong the tribes in 
their respective colonies. 

The Governor of South Carolina sent an armed force of 
whites, and some Indian allies whose services had been 
secured, under the command of Col. John Barnwell; these, 
together with the few remaining white settlers formed a 
force sufficiently strong to cope with the Indians. In the 
mean time the Indians had fortitled themselves in a strong 
palisade fort about eighteen miles from New Berne, now 
known as Fort Barnwell, and the whites marched to attack 
them in their fortitication. The Indians being confident of 
their strength marched out and gave battle and w^ere de- 
feated with great slaughter. They retired to their fortitica- 
tion, and Barnwell laid seige. The Indians, after again sus- 
taining great loss, were comi)elled to surrender. 

Notwithstanding the disastrous defeat at Fort Barnwell 
the Indians continued to wage war with so much vigor that 
it was necessary for the Governor and Council to solicit 
further assistance from South Carolina; it was obtained and 
an additional force marched from there under the command 
of Col. Moore. Ui)on his arrival at New Berne, he ascer- 
tained that the Cotechney tribe, having heard of his coming, 
had strongly fortified themselves where the town of Snow 
Hill now^ stands in Greene county. He immediately marched 
against them, invested the fort and alter a stubbon resistance 


upon the part of the Indians, succeeded in capturing it to- 
gether with 800 prisoners, many of whom were made slaves.. 

The Indians, though defeated in two battles, were not 
yet humble(^ the Mattamuskeets, the Matcbapungoes and 
the Cores still held out and continued to wage war. Col. 
Moore, after the defeat of the Cotechneys, turned his attention 
to the Mattamuskeets and Matchapungo tribes, and after a 
weary and painful march came upon them in the swamps of 
Hyde county and defeated and dispersed both tribes. From 
there he marched against the Cores who had been again en- 
gaged in murdering the whites in the vicinity of New Berne 
and on the lower waters of the Neuse. He found them in 
Carteret county, near where the town of iieaufort now 
stands, gave battle and obtained a victory. This was the 
last Indian war in the vicinity of New Berne, and the last in 
the colony of North Carolina. The Indians were, after the 
defeat at Beaufort, completely humbled and sued for peace. 
The Tuscarora tribe emigrated to New York and joined the 
tribes now known as the Six Nations. The Cores, Cotechney 
and Mattamuskeet Indians were settled around Mattamus- 
keet Lake, on a tract of ten thousand acres of land. 

A few days before the time tixed for the massacre of the 
whites, De Grattenried and the Surveyor General, Lawson, 
left New Berne and proceeded up Neuse river to make dis- 
coveries as to how f;u- the stream was navigable, and also to' 
inspect the lands. After journeying the greater part of the 
day, they concluded to spend the first night at an Indian 
vilhige called "Corutra." They were met by two Indians, 
who were soon joined by a large party, all armed. The 
Baron and Lawson became alarmed and attempted to retreat 
to their boat; tlie Indians anticipating this movement, seized 
their arms and provisions, took tliem prisoners, carried tliem 
to a village and gave them up to a chief. On the succeeding 
day the Indians held council, and the Baron and Lawson 
were examined as to their intentions in proceeding up the 
Kiver Neuse. The Baron replied, and said his object was to 
find a better and shorter road to Virginia. TJie Indians 
then complained of the colonists generally, and of Lawson 
particularly; said that he was the man who sold their lands. 
The next day the Baron and Lawson hoped to be permitted 
to return home, but were disappointed and subjected to 
another examination. One of the Core Indians whom Law- 
son had offended by reprimanding him for some misconduct, 
produced an unfriendly feeling toward the prisoners. This 
Indian, who understood a little English, oveiliearing a con- 
versation between De Grattenried and Lawson represented 
to his countrymen that they were speaking of them in a 

NEW BERNE, N. C. 21 

(lisrespecti'iil maimer. The Indians became enraged, and 
although De Graffenried said the statement made by the 
Indian was untrue, they fell u])oii them, beat them nnmerci- 
lully, and condemned them to death. Lawson and the negro 
servant of the Baron were executed. The Baron escaped by 
claiming to be a King of the Germans and demanded by 
what authority they could put a Kiug to death, when tlie 
King had broken no law of their making, or committed no 
offence toward them. 

The mode of Lawson's deatli was terrible. The Indians 
stuck his body full of liue s|)liuters made of pitch pine, of tlie 
kind known as lightwood, and set them on tire. 

Lawson, in his letters on North Carolina, had repre- 
sented the Indians as kind and gentle in their dispositions. 
They now gave him terrible evidence that they were as re- 
vengeful and blood thirsty when aroused as the tiger in his 

Of the arrest of De Graffenried and the murder of Law- 
son and the negro, the wliites of New Berne knew uothiug; 
had they been aware of it, their suspicions that tlie Indians 
were bent on some treachery might have been aroused suffi- 
ciently to have caused them to make some preparation for 
defence; but unhappily the only warning they had was the 
terrible war-whoop. 

For the next fifteen or twenty years there is but little 
data — but little known of the history of New Berne. De 
Graffenried not much relishing his experince in colonizing 
among Indians, mortgaged his property to Col. Pollock, one 
of the Lords Proprietors deputies and commander-in-chief of 
the colony. 

We think the colony must have flourished somewhat, as 
the legislature in 1723, then in session at Edenton, passed 
•'An Act for the better settling of the town of New Berne in 
the precinct of Craven." By said act it was incorporated as 
a town and lots were designated for a court house, church 
and market |)lace. 

On the 6th March, 173S, the Legislatures which had 
heretofore assembled in Edenton and Batli met in New Berne 
and several im])ortant measures were acted upon and adopted. 
For several years thereafter the Legislature met in New 
Berne and in 1740 ordered four lots to be sold for the purpose 
of « 'reefing a church. From this time we have some data, and 
well attested tradition. Tliough a small place she attracted 
some attention trom abroad. Well attested tradition and 
old letters tell us of her foreign business and business coast- 


In 1743 we fiud from the records of tlie court that there 
were several "Taverns" and "Ordinaries" in the town and 
the i)rices for entertainment were regulated by law. The 
following is the schedule of prices: 

S. D. 

Lodging one night, 2 

One hot diet, - - 5 

One cold diet, 2 

Pasturage for a horse, 2 

One quart Madeira wine, 20 

" " Claret " - - - - . 20 . 

Kum punch with loaf sugar - - - - 5 

" t* " brown sugar, - - - - 4 

Half pint rum, 4 

Beer, 3 

Corn per quart, 

The above, we imagine, were the prices in the depreciated 
currency of the day. 

In the years 1745 and 1747 the Legislature again met in 
New Berne. 

In 1749 the first printing i)ress in the colony was intro- 
duced into the town by James Davis, wlio issued a weekly 
paper called "The North Carolina Gazette." The ofhce was 
located on the lot on the corner of Broad and East Front 
streets, south side.- Davis died in 1783, much respected on 
account of his usefulness and parity of character. 

Hogs, at this time, mast have been troublesome, as the 
Commissioners of the town met to ascertain Avho were "in- 
clinable" to enclose the towji with a fence running from river 
to river "to keep out hogs and wild animals," to be built of 
good, strong, substantial rails, said fence to be six feet high 
and "two strong gates to be made in the same manner as 
Doctor Haslin's" The builder was allowed fifty pounds for 
the erection of the fence, and gate keepers were a})pointed. 
The number of cattle, sheep, horses and hogs each resident 
was allowed to keep in town was regulated by hiAv. In 1752 
a public pound was erected, and all stray aninuils were 
caught and sold. 

By enactment of the Commissioners it Avas ordered, that 
all owners of lots should cut down the trees on their premis»\s 
and clear the lots up, under penalty of twenty shillings for 
all dereliction; and the Commissioners also required that all 
wooden chimneys be j)ulled down. The following are ex- 
tracts from the re})orts of the Commissioners in 1753: 

"Ordered, That J. Davis, aj?ent, coUect the several sums subscribed by the 
several persons for making the fence, and that John Bryan and Benjamin Foril- 
ham keep the fence in order for six months, and when the gates are finished, to 
keep them shut." 

NEW BERNE, N. C. 23 

" Ordered, That the Town Constable warn the several and respective masters 
and mistresses offamiles and others liable by law, to meet at the Court House on 
Thursday next, at 10 o'elook, and bring with them all their male taxables, pro- 
vided with grubbing- hoes and axes to clear the streets of the town under penaltj'- 
by law." 

Ill 1754 tlier^ was a meeting of the Legislature and Gov. 
Arthur J)obbs was inaugurated. He brought with him as a 
present from King George to the eoh)ny several cannon and 
one thousand muskets. About this time a little incident 
occurred that aroused some commotion in New Berne. In- 
structions had been received to fix on a more convenient and 
accessible location for tlie seat of government. A place 
called "Tower Hill" in Greene county was selected, but noth- 
ing more ever came of the instructions. 

An act was i)assed in 1764 by the Legislature to erect a 
school house in New Berne. Nortli Carolina was then with- 
out a public school. This school still exists in the city; and 
in the latter part of the 18tli century the "old brick academy" 
as it is called, was erected. 

Gov. Dobbs died in 17(34 and was succeeded by William 
Tryon. After Tryon came into oftice a s<dieme for the 
erection of an elegant i)alace entered his imagination and he 
bent every energy of his mind to accomplish his object, and 
even the influeuce of the King of England was brought to 
bear upon the people; and Lady Tryon and her sister, Lady 
Esther Wake, were lavish in their blandishments on the 
legislators to eft'ect the object of Governor Tryon. Plans and 
S[jeciticatious were imi)orted Irom England together with an 
architect, eTohn Hawks, grandfather to the eminent divine 
Dr. Francis L. Hawks. During Tryon's administration the 
building was tinished, and at an expense that bore terribly 
on the limited means of the people. A picture of the palace 
and its surroundings is given on 16th page. Its cost ap- 
proximated one hundred thousand dollars, a very large sum 
of money for tlie then few inhabitants of North Carolina to 
raise, to say nothing of the taxes levied to assist the British 
government to carry on war in other, portions of the conti- 
nent. It was, when finished, the llnest residence in the 
colonies and was inrnished in a style both costly and mag- 
niticent, and the relics now in })ossession of some few families 
in New Berne have scarcely an equal in the extravagance of 
the present day. The contract for building the palace speci- 
fied that it should be 87 feet front and 59 feet deei), and three 
stories high with suitable buildings for ottices, etc. The 
stable, wliich is still standing, and is now used as a chapel, 
was connected Avith the palace by a curviform colonnade, and 
the servants' hall was connected in the same manner. The 
stable has resisted the inroads of time, and is in the same 


style of arcliitectiire as when left by Tryon, with the excep- 
tion of the enlargement of the windows, and some interior 

Says Ebenezer Hazzard, in his Journal for 1777, when he 
visited the palace: ''You enter a hall in which are four 
niches for statues. The chimney breasts of this council 
chamber, dining hall and drawing room, and the cornices of 
thes'3 rooms were of white marble. The chimney breast of 
the council chamber was the most elaborate, being orna- 
mented by two Ionic columns beJow and four columns above, 
with beautiful entabhiture architrave and Irieze. Over the 
inner door or ante-chamber or entrance hall was a tablet 
with a Latin inscription showing that the palace was dedi- 
cated to Sir William Draper, the conqueror of Manilla," and 
also the following lines in Latin which were written by 
JJraper, then on a visit to Tryon : 

" In the reigii of a monarch who goodness disclosed, 
A free happy people to dread tyrants opposed, 
Have to virture and merit erected this dome; 
May the owner and honsehold make this their loved home- 
Where I'eligion, the arts and the laws may unite 
Future ages to Uve in sweet peace and delight." 

The above translation was made by Judge Martin, the 
historian of Xorth Carolina, who A'isited the edifice in 1783 
in company with the unfortunate Don Francisco dc Miranda. 
That gentleman assured Martin that the structure had no 
equal in South America." 

The above statement we copy from Lossing's "Field 
Book of the Kevolution," who subjoins in a note that Sir 
William Draper was an excessively vain man; upon a ceno- 
taph at his seat at Clifton Down, near Bristol, England, he 
had this inscription placed; "Here lies the mother of 
Sir William Draper." 

Tiie inscription over the door of the ante-cLamber of the 
palace was so great a burlesque upon the then existing state 
of aftairs, that it excited the ridicule of the people; Judge 
Maurice Moore, of the Superior court, over the signature of 
'^Atticus," addressed him a letter of withering scorn, scarcely 
without a parallel, unless in the celebrated letters of Junius. 
We extract the following: 

"Your pride has as often exposed you to ridicule as the rude petulance of 
your disposition has to contempt. Your solicitude about the title of His Excel, 
lency for Mrs. Tryon, and the ari-ogant reception yon gave to a respectable com- 
pany at an entertainment of your own making, seated with your lady by you 
ON ELBOW-ciiAiRS IX THE MIDDLE OF THE ROOM, bespeak a littleness of mind, 
which, believe me sir, when blended with the dignity and importance ot your 
office renders you supremely ridiculous." 

The arrogant and overbearing conduct of Tryon, both in 
private and ])ublic life was so great, that the people were 
aroused and became violent and disorderly in their demon- 
strations; this feeling extended throughout the colony. The 


liorde of tax gatherers that had been let h^ose among the 
})eoi)le, (leiiiandiiig iHegal fees for their services, aroused the 
l)eople in tlie interior of the State to armed resistance. The 
most obnoxious of these scoundrels was one p]dward Fanning, 
a lawyer of ability who had grown rich by extortion. After 
repeated promises on the part of Tryon to ameliorate the 
condition of the i)eople, and as often broken, they would not 
stand his tyranny any longer. They armed themselves, and 
were styled Regulators and were guilty of a few acts of law- 

Tryon, upon receipt of intelligence that the Regulators 
were on their way to New Berne, having heard that their 
representative (Husband) had been imprisoned, became 
alarmed, and proceeded to fortify New Berne. He assembled 
the militia of the adjoining counties and marched against 
them and found them encamped in Alamance, and upon their 
petitioning for redress, met them with a demand to lay down 
their arms and disperse. 

During the conference with the Regulators, Tryon be- 
came enraged at some plain talk on the part of one Robert 
Thompson, an amiable but bold man in his speech, Avho had 
gone to Tryon's camp as an agent to negotiate and upon his 
attempting to return to his friends Tryon seized a musket 
from the hands of one of his soldiers and shot Thompson 
dead ; he then took counsel of his passions and gave the 
word FIRE upon the Regulators. The militia hesitated, and 
Tryon became maddened with rage, rose in his stirrups and 
shouted, "Fire on them or on me.'' The tiring then became 
general ; the Regulators soon exhausted their amunition and 
beat a retreat. Tryon lost sixty men in killed and wounded; 
the Regulators lost nine in killed. This was the first 
RATTLE OF THE REVOLUTION, fought 16th May, 1771. 

As soon as the battle was over Tryon executed seven of 
the prisoners without even the form of a trial. He had been 
styled by the Cherokee Indians "The Great Wolf of North 
Carolina," a title well deserved for his many cruel acts. He 
was soon appointed Governor of the Colony of New York, 
and left much to the joy of the people. 

During the Revolutionary war he was guilty of many 
unnecessary acts of wanton cruelty to the people of the 
Northern Colonies; he burned Continental village in New 
York; his hatred to Americans amounted to insanity; he 
l)lotted the murder of Washington; he burned the village of 
Danbury in Connecticut; he plundered the village of Stam- 
ford; layed the town of Fairtield in ashes, and plundered the 


town of iN^orwalk, all in the colony of Coiiuecticnt. Siicli is 
the record of this brutal wretch. Of all the officers of Great 
Britain who foiii»ht against the colonies, he was the most 
vindicave and brutal; even the cruel (Jol. Tarlton was an Angel 
of Mercy in comparison with him. We have been thus par- 
ticular in giving some account of this man, tor tlie reason 
tnat his history and his oftlcial military acts are part of the 
history of ^cw Berne. He was succeeded by Martin, who, to 
his credit, endeavored to allay tiie disturbance of the people, 
but was, as all ot tuc otiier iioyal Governors, too much 
restricted by his instructions; but the people were now thor- 
ougliiy aroused and ready to dare and to do anything' that 
would hamper or obstruct the British authority. 

The hrst legislature that ever met. in oNorth Carolina 
iiKlependent of Koyal authority, met in New Berne on the ii5th 
day of August, 1774. The convention that had been called 
by the people a lew months beiore and was presided over by 
John fiarvey, oi Terquimans, was again called, and met at 
the same time as the legislature. This convention had been 
called lor the purpose oi sending- delegates to the Continen- 
tal Congress. Governor Martin denounced the Continental 
Congress as ^'seditious and wicked" and endeavored to keep 
the two assemblies then in JSew Berne distinct, lie entreated 
the legislative body 'to discountenance the convention of the 
other deputies chosen by the people and in lirm and respect- 
ful language urged the people ''to remember their allegiancje 
and to iaithfuliy maintain it." His appeals were without 
the hoped for results, both legislature and convention were 
too intimately allied in sentiment to act in opposition to each 
other. The Governor then <lissolved the legislature on the 
8th of April 1771. 

The Governor and the people were now i airly at issue, 
and fearing for his safety, he tied to Fort Johnson, on the 
Cape I'ear, and hnally took refuge on the British sloop of 
war "Cruiser" and from there fulminated his proclamations. 

The war clouds that for several years had hovered over 
the country, now burst with fury upon the colonists. The 
battle shout of victory that went up from the plains of Lex- 
ington resounded in clarion notes throughout the land. The 
news spread east, west, north and south. OuAvard it sped 
its way south through rocky glens, over hills and dales, over 
the wide waste of waters to Carolina's borders; and onward 
through evergreen forests, and lea})ing broad soun<ls and 
rapid rivers to New Berne. "For God's sake forward it night 
and day," said tliat grand old patriot, Cornelius Harnett, of 

NEW BERNE, N. C. 27 

Ih'unswick. Men of Soufcli Carolina heard the news and on 
fresh rela3's of horses, dispatcdied it through groves of pine, 
pahnetto and jnajestic oaks, and over broad savannas to 
Charh?ston; and still onwards, the glorious news sped until it 
resounded on the blue waters of the Mexiean gulf. It passed 
through the portals of the AUeglianies and re-echoed from 
snowy i)eak to snowy peak, and sounded (h)wn the wild 
gorges of the Freneh Broad until it reached the hardy men 
on the Holston. The turbid waters of the Ohio bore the 
news to the brave settlers on the Kentucky. 

In the north, hill top spoke it to mountain and moun- 
tain to lake and it w^as borne onward to the waters of the 
]nighty Saint Lawrence. Men felt that the wearisome un- 
certainty w as now over, that war was inevitable. New Berne 
was wild with excitement. Men flew to arms; every town 
and every tannery were set to work; the women and children 
moulded bullets and amid all these stern preparations for 
w^ar, tlie peo[)le freely gave of their abundance to the relief 
of the people of Massachusetts. 

Gov. Martin made strenuous exertions to raise an army 
amongst the loyalists: he issued cominissions to them, and 
the Koyal standard was set u}) at Cross creek, near Fayette- 
villc). An army of 1,500 men, mostly from among the Scotch 
settlers, w^as soon formed and placed under the command of 
JJonald McDonald, a veteran Scotch soldier. The continen- 
tal soldiers under the command (5f Colonels Casw^ell and Lill- 
ington attacked and defeated, them w^itli great slaughter. 
A Northern historian in describing this great battle says: 
''The strong minute men of the Neuse region, their oflicers 
w^earing silver crescents upon j;heir hats, inscribed with the 
stirring words "Liberty or Death" were in front and to their 
gallantry may be attributed the splendid results of the battle 
of Moorc'S Creek fought the :^7th of February, 1776. 

In the month of August 1781 a regular force of 400 men 
and about the same number of tories under Major Craig 
nmrclied from Wilmington and captured New" Berne and 
plundered the town, aiul brutally murdered Dr. Alexander 
Gaston, one of the leading spirits of the town. Another 
gentleman, a strong and active opponent of the crown, Mr. 
Kichard Cogdell, narrowly escaped with his life. 

New Berne bore her part in the grand revolutionary 
struggle; she w as a hot bed of revolution. She gave freely 
of arms men and money to the great cause; and during the 
entire war her sons participated in the various battles. The 
population of New Berne at the outbreak of the war did not 


exceed six liuiulred people. Slie had considerable commerce 
coastwisye and foreign; alter the conclusion of tlie war lier 
commerce was enlarged. In the early da^ s of North Caro- 
lina there were many settlers, scions ot families of rank; 
consequently the artiticial distinction in society were Yer\ 
prominent; it was the custom even in the proceedings of a 
court of law to give the title of "gentleman" in the drawing 
of legal documents. Among the prominent settlers of New 
Berne was Doctor Alexander Gaston, whose nativity was 
Ireland. He was a surgeon in the British Navy, resigned in 
Havana, emigrated to the colonies and settled in New Berne. 
He was a true representative of Ireland, hot headed, impul- 
sive and brave. His grand-father was a Presbyterian cler- 
gyman, of Huguenot stock, that emigrated to Ireland upon 
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1085. The Gastons 
were descended from the celebrated Count Gaston de Foix, 
renowned in the 14:th century for his leai'uing, Avealth and 
prow^ess in arms, and one of the most powerful subjects of 
the King of France. Alexander Gaston was the father of 
the celebrated jurist and statesman, William Gaston, whose 
remaijis now rest in the beautiful Cedar Grove cemetery. 
Judge Gaston in his day and generation w^as in the foremost 
rank of the galaxy of great men. He left a grand-son Wil- 
liam, who Avas an officer in the United States Army, and was 
killed in Oregon by the Indians in his first campaign. When 
found, lie was lying on his*side dead, with seven arrows shot 
through his body and beside him lay his empty revolver and 
his sword, and around him were the bodies of twelve dead 
Indians whom he had slain in the desperate encounter. 

During the administrati(in of Tryou, whose public enter- 
tainments and great style in which he lived, were the thenM3s 
of every tongue. New Berne became the seat of colonial 
fashion. Persons of rank and Avealtii came from the adjoin- 
ing colonies of Virginia and South Carolina, attracted by the 
lavish hospitatity of the patrician element of the population 
— there were patricians in those days — bringing with them 
their families, servants and blooiled horses; among the 
amusements then most in vogue was horse rating, and it was 
carried to a great extent. Tradition runneth that Tryon had 
the race track now near New I)erne laid out; we think this 
account of it is correct. He, Tryon, was fond of horses and 
his stable was well filled. 

New Berne was out of the track of the contending Bevo- 
lutionary armies, consequently suffered comparatively little, 
though she was a hot bed of revolution, and "a iiornets nest 

NEW BERNE, N. V. 29 

of rebellion;" aud poured her treasures freely into tlie lap of 
the country. In colonial times her merchants possessed 
princely means and contributed liberally to the war. John 
Wright Stanly, the most liberal contributor of them all, for 
he was the rictiest, who after losing thirty-live sail of vessel 
with their cargoes, came out of the war with his fortune but 
little impaired. 

During the last war with Great Britain, New Berne suf- 
fered much in lier commerce in conseijuence ot the non-inter- 
course and embargo act entor(jed by the Federal Government. 
Some of the inhabitants took a new cut to better their- 
condition, they titted out a privateer and proceeded to make 
a little war on tlieir own private account; and they were very 
successful. The writer remembers hearing the captain of 
the privateer wlien he was cpiite an old man say, ''that when 
peace was proclaimed he felt like crying," that "privateering 
paid so well he would like to loUow the business always." 
The privateer was called the "Snap JJragon" and the com- 
manders' name was Otway Burns. She was a very fast and 
a very dangerous vessel to British commerce. She took 
many prizes and some very rich ones. The first church edi- 
fice erected in New Berne was the Episcopal. It stood on 
the corner of the lot now occupied by the present church. 
The old church, built in colonial times was cruciform, and 
was pulled down when the present edilice was erected, lie- 
ligious intolerance existed in North Carolina as well as in 
Virginia and Massachusetts previous to the days of the 
revolution. The records of Craven County show, chat this 
intolerance was shown to the Baptist clergymen who applied 
to the county authorities for license to preach the Gospel of 
Chj'ist, and were made to sutfer imprisonment as disturbers 
of the peace. 

After the revolutionary war was closed and all men were 
declared "free and equal" and allowed to worship God in a 
manner that seemed to them best, then the Baptists built a 
church near Cedar Grove Cemetery, which is now used as a 
colored Episcoi)al church. Early in the present century 
about the year 1806 the mighty tide of Methodism flowed 
over Eastern Carolina, its beneticial ettects were felt in New 
Berne. The early apostles of that faith who lirst preached 
ill New Berne were enthusiastic in their devotion to the 
cause. They had earned the respect and love of the people by 
their great self-denial and h(dy lives. Some of them were 
plain and unlettered men, but their earnestness and sincere 
love for the cause they had espoused lent them an eloquence 



that moved the masses, and the good results were seen in 
the improved condition of tlie })eo[)le both mentally and 

In the first quarter of the present century the Presbyte- 
rians erected a church. The pastor, the liev. L. C. Vass, I). 
D., has published quite an interesting- history of the rise and 
])rogress of the Presbyterian church m New Berne. It would 
be well to state that tlie Presbyterian immigrants into Xorth 
Carolina were generally educated; wherever they settled they 
erected a church and a school house. The Catholics also 
erected a church. 81 nee the erection of these churches, 
the spliere of religious intluence lias extenihMl and widened 
until there are now twenty -one churches in the city of New 
Berne. New Berne has produced maiiy learned and highly 
gifted men, renowned in law, statesmanship and divinity. 
8he was called the alliens of North Carolina. In the preced- 
ing pages, we have spoken of William Gaston, Judge of the 
Supreme Court of North Carolina, also United States Sena- 
tor, the peer of any man who stood up in that body, and 
justly renowned for liis wisdom, eloquence, learning and 
piety. There were also the Stanleys, the S[)aights, the Bry- 
an brothers, Buxton, the Washingtons, tlie Sheppards, the 
JJonnels, father and sou, Badger, Blackledge, the Hawks, 
Atmore, Manly, Hutchings, (now of Texas,) H. T. Guiou and 
others, all with one exception have passed away; their vir- 
tues are a precious heritage to their descendents. 

In the days when commerce was carried on coastwise 
and foreign exclusively in sail vessels, then New Berne was 
a great ship building point. The introduction of steam 
transportation injured this industry very greatly. Now the 
building of steam vessels is a growing industry. About^the 
years 1828 and 1830 the growing prosperity of New Berne 
was very much retarded, owing to opening up of the South- 
western lands. Emigration to the States of Alabama and 
Mississippi set in. Owing to the vicious system of agricul- 
ture then in vogue, the uplands of North Carolina were 
worn out and the cry was for clieaper lands, richer lands and 
good cotton lands; liad the emigrants of that day i)ursued 
the same course of industry and painful self-denial in North 
Carolina that they were compelled to do in the States of their 
adoption there would have been no necessity of emiuigra- 
tion. The system of the cultivation of lands now in North 
Carolina has clianged, and we can point with pride to the 
farms around New Berne and challenge comparison witli any 
trucking or cotton farms in tlie [Jnited States. 



e\v Berne, (liirin;n- the war of 1S12, was very near t'all- 
uvj; into the hands of British sailoi\s. Admiral Oockbnrn 
whih^ on his way to the West India ishinds, after having 
finished his ontra.i;es upon the non-eoinbatants in Chesa- 
peake Bay, anchored his lieet at Oeracoke bar, landed a force 
on tlie islands of Oeracoke and Portsmouth, took several of 
the inhabitants prisoners, aiiionij;- them was Mr. Thomas 
Singleton, then United States Collector. All of them were 
subsequently released. He destroyed one or two privateers 
then at anchor that were unable to proceed to a place of 
safety u[) the Pamlico sound, owing to tlieir heavy draught 
of water. 

Having learned that the privateer ^'Snap Dragon" was 
then at Xew Berne refitting, and also that there w^as a very 
large amount of specie on deposit in the bank, the fruits of 
the depredations on British commerce, he determined to 
pay New Berne a visit. Manning a large number of boats 
with several hundrtMl marines and soldiers, all well armed, 
he started theju on the expedition. They had not gone very 
far before they were signalled to return. Soon after they 
left the Admiral told Mr. Singleton that they were on their 
way to New Berne and the object of the visit, and that he 
anticipated an easy job. Mr. Singleton said that it was to 
be regretted that he had sent the expedition on such an 
errand, that it would end in the capture or slaughter of the 
whole party, as New Berne was well fortitied, and that there 
were two thousand soldiers there in New Berne waiting 
marching orders. Upon receipt of this information, which 
was a ruse upon the part of Mv. Singleton, the expedition 
was recalled. 

General Washington in the latter part of the last cen- 
tury made a tour through the South. He visited New Berne 
and the people gathered from afar and near to do honor to 
the distinguished guest. In Tryon's palace the reception 
Avas held. A ball was given him at the house of John 
Wright Stanley, situated on the southwest corner of Neuse 
and Mi(hlle streets, now owned and occui)ied by Mr. James 
A. Bryan. He was entertained at the house on the north- 
west corner of Neuse and East Pront streets, now^owned and 
occupied by the family of the late distinguished Judge 

It has been the good fortune of the writer of these pages 
to have held converse with a lady who was a native of New 
Berne, and a btdle when Gen. Washington visited the city. 
She described him as being very stately in appearance, was 


an easy, graceful dancer, had a pleasant smile for everyone, 
and expressed a preference for corn bread for break- 

In the grounds of Christ Church is the grave of Charles 
Elliott, Attorney General of the Province of North Carolina, 
who died in 1750, and on his tombstone is the following 
iu script ion : 

"An Honest Lawyer Indeed." 

One would think from this inscription that honest law- 
yers were more than scarce in the colony. 

We have had much to say with regard to this old historic 
town. North Carolinians are i)roud of her history. It is 
true that she has not advanced as far in material progress as 
other places. There is none of the garish show of wealth 
exhibited here that one can tind in other towns of like size. 
The people are friendly and unassuming in their manner, 
intelligent and courteous, kind and considerate and sojourn 
ers here always find it so, and invariably express themselves 
as being well pleased.